Quotation & Referencing

January 13, 2019

Quotation & Referencing
A.   Introduction
Unit 4 elaborates brief information on quotation and referencing, some exercises and practical implementation of these skill. Skills of quoting and referencing are vital skills for students in writing their scholarly articles. The aims of using them are to refer expert outside sources on ideas and opinion relating writer’s topic and support recent writer’s opinion. The reference manager system is also introduced and used to prepare their academic exercises and essays. Besides, this part is completed by illustrations as part of model for students to do exercises and assignment related to the topic. This also underpins some activities which demand students to think, discuss and reflect to increase their regulated strategy learning.
B.    Quotation
Building background knowledge
Practice 1
Work individually on the following questions.
ü What kind of quotation have you ever heard?
ü Have you ever heard direct and indirect quotation?
ü If your response yes, elaborate them.
ü If your response no, visit website https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LbyJdMz-Ato and observe it.
ü After watching the video, elaborate them in the following box.







Discuss it
Practice 2
Work in group and do some following instructions
ü Divide your class in group of 3 members.
ü Discuss the term “quotation” .
ü Elaborate your result of discussion in front of the class both written and verbally.
Write result of discussion here.










1.       Overview of quotation
Quotation is mainly called citation in the field of academic purposes. Scholarly articles tend to use both direct and indirect quotations to refer expert(s)’ opinion or ideas, but the writer can apply the valued quotation for expressing idea from original words in a distinctive way, presenting the concise original word than its summary and pointing popular original version. This part provides students with brief and technical information on using quotation to refer outside sources and support one’s ideas or opinions (Bailey, 2011).

2.       Direct quotation
Oshima and Hogue (2008) explained several elements of the both direct and indirect quotation which scoped reporting verbs and phrases, its punctuation, tense sequence, and quotation abbreviation.
a.  Reporting verbs and phrase
The reporting verbs and phrase are commonly used to introduce borrowed information, sources and quotation with some rules to be followed:
ü Reporting verbs are usually positioned before, in the middle or after borrowed information, but reporting phrase does not emerge in the middle position.
Example:
The secretary of conference suggests, "To attend the conference, you must show payment proof " (Barka).
The bold word is reporting verb is emerged before quotation.
"To attend the conference," suggests the secretary of conference, " you must show payment proof " (Barka).
The bold word is reporting verb is emerged in the middle of quotation.
" To attend the conference, you must show payment proof," suggests the secretary of conference (Barka)
The bold word is reporting verbs is emerged after quotation.
According to the secretary of conference, the presenters must show payment proof (Barka).
The bold word is reporting phrase is emerged before indirect quotation.
the presenters must show payment proof, according to the secretary of conference (Barka).
The bold word is reporting phrase is emerged after indirect quotation.
ü Reporting verbs can be used either with or without the subordinator as.


Example:
As the secretary of conference says, "The presenters must show payment proof" (Barka).

The reporting verb is used with subordinator as
The secretary of conference says, "The presenters must show payment proof" (Barka).
The reporting verb is used without subordinator as

ü Reporting verbs can be in any tense. However, be aware that a past tense reporting verb may cause changes in verbs, pronouns, and time expressions in an indirect quotation.
Example:
The secretary of conference says that the presenters must show payment proof" (Barka).
Reporting verb and main verb in present tense
The secretary of conference said that the presenters had to show payment proof" (Barka).
Reporting verb and main verb in past tense.

ü Inserting the source of the quotation with the reporting expression gives authority to your writing because it lets your reader know immediately that your information is from a credible source.
Example:
The institute of Regional technology announces, “The technology exhibition is well-organized with cultural carnivals to promote local wisdom”.
The bold words indicate source of the quotation with the reporting expression.

b.  Direct quotation punctuation
Oshima and Hogue (2008) wrote some punctuation uses and rules in direct quotation:
Punctuation Mark
Punctuation location and rules
Example
Quotation mark
Put quotation marks at the beginning and end of information that you copy word for word from a source.
According to Financial illustrated, "The exchange rate of international field depends on the political issue."

Put quotation marks into two parts for broken quoted sentence.

"The outstanding achievement who win the competition, " stated Dr. Ibrahim, the steering coach of international sprint, "has exercises regularly and simultaneously" (cited in Yolan, 2009).





Comma
Put comma before the first mark of quotation.

According to Financial illustrated, "The exchange rate of international field depends on the political issue."

Comma are placed before the second mark of quotation if the introducing phrase ends the sentence.
"The exchange rate of international field depends on the political issue," according to Financial illustrated.

Exception
Don’t put comma if, you refer only a few quoted words into your own sentence.

The financial minister believes that economical condition of certain country varies and influenced of "inflation rate" which is occurred every year (Jordan, 1999)








Period
Put period before the second mark of quotation if it ends the sentence.

According to Financial illustrated, "The exchange rate of international field depends on the political issue."
Put period after of reporting phrase if it ends the sentence.
"The exchange rate of international field depends on the political issue," according to Financial illustrated.

Put period after parenthesis mark of in-text citation.
According to Financial illustrated, "The exchange rate of international field depends on the political issue" (Smith, 2009, p.10).
Ellipsis
(three spaced periods)

Use ellipsis to omit words.

According to coach director stated "The regular exercises
has shaped the trainee mental and characteristic" (cited in Yolan, 2009).







Capital letter
Capitalize the first word of the quotation.

According to Financial illustrated, "The exchange rate of international field depends on the political issue" (Smith, 2009, p.10).

Capitalize the first word of the sentence.
According to Financial illustrated, "The exchange rate of international field depends on the political issue" (Smith, 2009, p.10).

Capitalize the name of department, institution and agency.
According to Financial illustrated, "The exchange rate of international field depends on the political issue" (Smith, 2009, p.10).

Exception
If there are two quotation in a sentence, capitalize first word of first quotation only.
"The outstanding achievement who win the competition, " stated Dr. Ibrahim, the steering coach of international sprint, "has exercises regularly and simultaneously" (cited in Yolan, 2009).
Parenthesis mark
Use parenthesis mark to in-text citation.
According to Financial illustrated, "The exchange rate of international field depends on the political issue" (Smith, 2009, p.10).
Brackets
Put square brackets before and after words you added.

According to Financial illustrated, "The exchange rate of international field [stock exchange] depends on the political issue."
Single quotation mark
Put single quotation marks to insert a quotation within a quotation.

According to coach director of international sprints, " The trainee passion in doing exercises, 'internal motivation' in doing process" (Jones).
Colon and indent

Indent one inch from left-hand margin
Put colon and indent it one inch from the left-hand margin if your quotation is four lines or longer.
A national news agency reported these shocking survey results: (colon)
Several years ago [when] 198 athletes were asked if they would take a performance-enhancing drug if they knew they would NOT be caught and they would win, 195 said they would take the drug. The second question revealed a more frightening scenario. The athletes were asked if they would take a drug that would ensure they would win every competition for five years and wouldn't get caught, but the side effects would kill them-more than HALF said they would take the drug ("2000 Olympics," par. 12).

WEALTH AND FERTILITY

January 12, 2019

Memorize it

Do the following stages of summarizing in a group of three members. The summary must not exceed 75 words.
Stage 1
Read carefully the original text and use dictionary if necessary. Note your difficult word on the box provided to you.
Original Text
WEALTH AND FERTILITY
For most of the past century an inverse correlation between human fertility and economic development has been found. This means that as a country got richer, the average number of children born to each woman got smaller. While in the poorest countries women often have eight children, the rate fell as low as 1.3 in some European countries such as Italy, which is below the replacement rate. Such a low rate has two likely negative consequences: the population will fall in the long term, and a growing number of old people will have to be supported by a shrinking number of young. But a recent study by researchers from Pennsylvania University suggests that this pattern may be changing. They related countries’ fertility rates to their human development index (HDI), a figure with a maximum value of 1.0, which assesses life expectancy, average income and education level. Over 20 countries now have an HDI of more than 0.9, and in a majority of these the fertility rate has started to increase, and in some is approaching two children per woman. Although there are exceptions such as Japan, it appears that ever higher levels of wealth and education eventually translate into a desire for more children (Bailey, 2011)


Difficult words:





Stage 2
Skim the whole original source to grasp gist.





Stage 3
Mark the key points by underlining or highlighting.








Stage 4
Make notes of the key points, paraphrasing where possible.

Key point notes:

Paraphrase:


Key point notes:


Paraphrase:





Stage 5
Write the summary from your notes, re-organising the structure if needed and check its accuracy of TREE (Topic, Reasons, Elaboration, and Ending).





Adding phrase or connectives



Support it
Do the following stages of summarizing in a group of three members. The summary must not exceed 75-90 words.
Stage 1
Read carefully the original text and use dictionary if necessary. Note your difficult word on the box provided to you.
Original Text
MECHANICAL PICKERS
       Although harvesting cereal crops such as wheat and barley has long been done by large machines known as combine harvesters, mechanising the picking of fruit crops such as tomatoes or apples has proved more difficult. Farmers have generally relied on human labour to harvest these, but in wealthy countries it has become increasingly difficult to find pickers willing to work for the wages farmers are able to pay. This is partly because the demand for labour is seasonal, usually in the autumn, and also because the work is hard and demanding. As a result, in areas such as California part of the fruit harvest is often unpicked and left to rot.
     There are several obvious reasons why developing mechanical pickers is challenging. Fruit such as grapes or strawberries comes in a variety of shapes and does not always ripen at the same time. Outdoors, the ground conditions can vary from dry to muddy, and winds may move branches around. Clearly each crop requires its own solution: machines may be towed through orchards by tractors or move around by themselves using sensors to detect the ripest fruit.
    This new generation of fruit harvesters is possible due to advances in computing power and sensing ability. Such devices will inevitably be expensive, but will save farmers from the complexities of managing a labour force. In addition, the more intelligent pickers should be able to develop a database of information on the health of each individual plant, enabling the grower to provide it with fertiliser and water to maintain its maximum productivity.
(Bailey, 2011)


Difficult words:





Stage 2
Skim the whole original source to grasp gist.





Stage 3
Mark the key points by underlining or highlighting.









Stage 4
Make notes of the key points, paraphrasing where possible.

Key point notes:

Paraphrase:


Key point notes:


Paraphrase:





Stage 5
Write the summary from your notes, re-organising the structure if needed and check its accuracy of TREE (Topic, Reasons, Elaboration, and Ending).





Adding phrase or connectives





Stage 6
Assess your summary with suggested checklist and let your friends assess your summary electronically

Independent Practice
Visit the Canvas Meeting 3 (summarizing), write summary from original sources.